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Edited By Kerstin Stutterheim and Martina Schuegraf

For younger children, handheld devices such as mobile phones and iPads were often used to play finger painting games or children's music. Other video media younger participants frequently utilize includes YouTube tutorials on various topics, including computer games especially Minecraft , and the MaroWeltShow.

Since parents often spoke worse German than the children, translation applications or other research tools proved to be helpful for the school children. Hence, most of their media consumption is during the evening, such as watching movies. In their home country, however, participants stated that their media usage was normally lower if an individual was working; something most of them would like to but are not able to do now.

TV was the centre of attention… we open the news, and everyone discusses the events concerning the news. I used to watch series and other things, and now all my worry is the language, opening the phone to learn a sentence is better than playing. I like to do things on my own without the need to use a translator. This is especially true during spells of bad weather our interviews were conducted in winter , where children's media consumption increases again.

When asked what they would do if they had to spend a weekend without any media devices, the children gave various responses but primarily said that they would find it boring. However, they also noted that they would have the ability to go outside more and play. These sorts of responses tend to stress the fundamental embedding and importance of media use in everyday life,. This is how our weekend is spent. In their home countries, the exchange of information was direct through face-to-face communication. However, due to several constraints such as the current size of flats in Germany which cannot accommodate meetings of larger groups , or the location of family members back home, real life meetings can no longer take place.

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Not only do spatially and culturally changed situations contribute to the altered use of media, but also the passage of time. Some children were too young to use mobile phones or gaming consoles in their home countries, however; now they can. Moreover, adults might not have had access to these devices back home simply because a few years ago they were not available in their local areas in Syria and Iraq.

For those who are living in shared refugee housing, the computer in the common room was not used.

Bayerische Landeszentrale für neue Medien

In flats with several rooms, the television is located in the living room; stressing the social importance of certain media practices once again. While iPads, on the other hand, are frequently used in the children's rooms; reducing the possibility of parental control. Children mainly watch German content, while adults often still lean towards Arabic content. Nevertheless, even adults watch cartoons in German, as they are suitable for learning the language due to their simplicity. When families had experienced longer stays in Turkey, some of them also watched films and series in Turkish.

In general, the interviewees stated that especially the younger children often speak German to each other but Arabic with their parents. One interviewee said that this was also the recommendation of the kindergarten teacher, since otherwise children could forget the Arabic language, which they would undoubtedly need if they were to return to their home country. One child stated that his mother wanted to borrow Arabic books from the library, but there were none.

Hence, an individual can have an entire form of media removed from their repertoire books and print media simply because they are not fluent in a specific language.

Some children, for example, turned away from Arabic books and websites because they cannot write in Arabic, since they had not begun school in their home country. For example, many respondents speak of a greater spatial proximity with friends and family in their home countries. Back home it was more common to meet in person on a regular basis with other individuals instead of relying on digital communication channels like WhatsApp or Facebook. We were comfortable and we didn't have the curiosity to know about what's happening outside the country.

There, the news goes from person to a person, a friend can come and tell you about the events happening. Hence, socialization is the central aspect that makes both the mobile phone and internet communication the favoured device by many. Chats are often used in a group setting by younger participants e. In addition, the mobile phone also offers a media viewing function in the form of YouTube or Netflix. Furthermore, adult participants watch TV for relaxation and entertainment purposes, which according to one interviewee, is because the news programmes on TV provide more succinct information than the mobile phone itself; proving that even though mobile phones are favoured for being multifunctional, their core purpose is socialization, not information retrieval or entertainment.

Online games are played with friends, siblings regularly watch cartoons together or with their parents, phoning relatives is always a group activity. The iPad is taken along to visit relatives to entertain and distract younger children. Sometimes parents leave their mobile devices to their children, who might not have their own, to play games. Video calling relatives in their home country frequently occurs as a group activity, and is somewhat of a ritual where family members pass the mobile phone around. For younger and disabled children, iPads or televisions are often left on for long periods of time to provide company or help them fall asleep.

A few children reported reading for themselves in the evening or very few getting something read aloud by their siblings or parents.

Medienästhetik und Mediennutzung. Media Production and Media Aesthetics

One mother stated that she read koranic verses for her children in the evening or explained stories of the prophet. One child reported that he used to play PlayStation with his older brother regularly; however, this stopped once his brother found a full-time job. Therefore, the social context of school had additionally supplemented her media repertoire. Nevertheless, within these families, media devices have a socialization factor instead of the content itself. On the weekend the TV is always on. This is partially why some families were reluctant to have their children watch Western movies and media.

Nevertheless, while some children expressed their distaste for certain kinds of mild sexual content, highlighting their parents cultural influence, most if not all children and young adults had mostly if not completely rejected all types of Arabic media. Children and teenagers would not utilize books, or websites in Arabic because they could not write in Arabic, with some not having even attended school in their home countries, while others having completely forgotten how to type in their native language.

Hence, while parents hope to instil certain cultural values in their children, they ignore that the linguistic aspect of their culture is already beginning to escape them through their literacy, and sometimes even diction. This process is reflected in the language combination used in all families, as well as the functional interweaving of media use and language acquisition; where cartoons, tablet apps or mobile games are used for learning German.

Here we also note a role reversal through which children take the authoritative role; because when parents, who often have a low to medium German language level, do not understand something, they turn to the children or media translation tools instead. News is also often used in language learning. Therefore, the motivation to watch more German coverage is because of language acquisition and not necessarily out of genuine interest in the content. Whether this research is concerning information on German laws, Islam in Germany, job opportunities, politics, elections or cleaning tips is irrelevant; what is important is that it is in German.

Several participants research the wars in their home countries and try to get more information on refugee issues in German. This can be done via Google News, main German broadcasters, Facebook Groups or official institutions. However, the process is sometimes facilitated with digital media communication, such as WhatsApp or Facebook groups. Several men in our sample hoped that they would find work at some point in the near future, which they believe would significantly accelerate integration and language acquisition.

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Therefore, their integration is facilitated through direct face-to-face, or digital media communication WhatsApp groups. Overall, children seem to be already well integrated, and although most children miss their relatives in their home country, they now seem to have grown quite attached to Germany. The children who go to school use their mobile devices on buses and during breaks.

Those families who do not have good internet access seem to be very dissatisfied. While children are increasingly drawn into German language online communication via WhatsApp groups of their school classes and Internet research activities for school projects, the use of social network sites by adults is often of an isolated nature. German-language content or German sources play only an educational role, with the main interest being the improvement of language skills and not the actual content.

This greatly depends on the age of the participants, for example, the younger they were when coming to Germany, the less likely they are to use mobile media to stay in touch with their former friends and family.

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Additionally, most children and adolescents tend to consume German media content more often than Arabic content. In the rare cases they do consume Arabic media content, it is in the presence of their parents, who state that they obligate or entice their kids to bring them closer to their roots.

For example, phones and social media were primarily used for engagement with home and host networks, while television and sitcoms were used for entertainment purposes. Important User Information: Remote access to EBSCO's databases is permitted to patrons of subscribing institutions accessing from remote locations for personal, non-commercial use. However, remote access to EBSCO's databases from non-subscribing institutions is not allowed if the purpose of the use is for commercial gain through cost reduction or avoidance for a non-subscribing institution. Source: Praxis Author s : Bilke-Hentsch, Oliver.

Abstract: The medialization of the world is changing the relationship and individualization processes of children and young people rapidly. Another limitation of our study is that some findings might have been lost in translation when transcripts were translated from Arabic to English. In order to reduce possible cultural, linguistic and spatial barriers, and to ensure that the participants were comfortable to communicate, an Arabic speaking researcher with previous experience in working with refugees interviewed the parents in their shared accommodation or their own flats.

Most parents spoke Arabic, with Turkish, English, Kurdish or beginner German as their second language. The children, who were mostly proficient in German, were also interviewed at home, but in German and separate from their parents by a different German researcher.